More than half of our current physicians intend to retire or cut back their practices at the very time that 30 to 40 million new people are entering the system, and the Baby Boom is entering its years of “peak medicine.” The necessity of producing more doctors, and emphasizing primary care, is obvious, but the real answer is far larger. Helping doctors become more efficient and effective could in effect greatly increase the number of available doctors and the time they have to give to patients, and restructuring and re-thinking how we do much of health care (particularly chronic care) could make the whole process far more effective and efficient — and far less expensive.